what are first aid measures one should provide

Emergency care is to be given to a person who is injured. looking for any wounds, internal injury or fractures is also very important step then it includes techniques of managing an injured patient and proper first aid essentials are provided. first aid is the initial care of the injured at scene of accident. anybody can give first aid, but to carry cardiopulmonary resuscitation measures one should be trained in first aid and should possess a valid certificate issued by a competent body. the first aid executed by a medical person is called medical aid

goals of first aid treatment

  1. preserve life by carrying out appropriate resuscitative measures
  2. prevent further injuries by careful handling
  3. promote recovery

initial care of the injured at the seen of accident are-

  1. remove the victim from the accident spot
  2. check his or her vital parameters quickly( pulses, bp, consciousness etc )
  3. seek the help of bystanders if trained in first aid
  4. make sure to inform the police and ambulance.
  5. ensure personal safety


  1. clear the mouth of clots, dentures, loose teeth, etc.
  2. extend the neck slightly as this opens up the pharynx
  3. if the patient is not breathing, initiate artificial respiration first. place a thin cloth over the patients mouth, blow into the patients mouth and close their nostrils. administer breaths at a rate of 16 per minute, observing for chest rise. perform mouth-to-nose respiration in case of extensive mouth injury. if the patient has sustained significant facial injury, position them prone, turn the face to one side, and apply pressure to the lower aspect of the chest (holger-nelson method)


Examine the radial pulse and carotid pulse to assess cardiac function. If the pulse is absent, follow these initial cardiac resuscitative measures.

  1. ensure that the patient is lying on a the hand surface.
  2. apply pressure with the palm’s heel at the lower end of the sternum
  3. optimum pressure should be applied and the depth of each pressure should be 1 1/4 inch
  4. perform external cardiac massage at the rate of 72 per minutes
    • preferably, two trained persons in first aid should simultaneously perform both external cardiac massage and artificial respiration. however, if there is no assistant available, a single person should carry out cardiopulmonary resuscitation as follows:
      • administer artificial respiration once, then promptly change position and perform external cardiac massage five times. maintain this 1:5 ratio throughout
      • carry out cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) until the patient recovers or for at least half an hour


it is advisable to arrest the bleeding by elevation or direct application of pressure over the bleeding points

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