what are passive movements and its basic rules

Anatomical movements which are performed by the therapist for the patient are called passive movements

Healthcare professionals may perform passive movements at single joints or at several joints in sequence, covering any or all of the joint movements and maintaining muscle length.

In many natural and functional movements, healthcare professionals may also perform passive movements to several joints simultaneously.

Basic Rules

  1. move the parts which are adequately supported
  2. Healthcare professionals should comfortably grasp the parts to be moved.
  3. the sequence of motion should be decided-
    • distal to proximal or proximal to to distal
      • each have their place, e.g. for giving passive movements to neurological patients a proximal to distal sequence is used. The reverse, a distal to proximal sequence, is more commonly used to aid venous and lymphatic return.
  4. Ease the grasp on the stretched skin side at the extremities of the ranges to prevent dragging.
  5. grasp the joint as near as possible
  6. During the movement, the healthcare professional should apply slight traction to the joint, while exerting compression at the extremities of the range.
  7. the motion should be smooth and rhythmical and the repetition rate maintained at even tempo
  8. changes in grasp should be smooth and positioning of the hands arranged so that minimal changes are necessary.

The passive range of motion may be within normal limits, hypermobile or hypomobile

palpation of measurement points can play a major role when using palpable landmarks for goniometry.

with passive movement, the examiner puts the joint through its ROM while the patient is relaxed.

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